Canada occupies a major portion of North America, Canada borders with the United States on the south by the US state of Alaska to the northwest, with the Atlanta Ocean to the east, to the Pacific Ocean in the west and north with the Arctic Ocean.
It is the world’s second largest country by total area, and shares land borders with the United States to the south and northwest. By total area (including its waters), Canada by far has more lakes than any other country and has a large amount of the world’s freshwater. Canada is the second largest country in the world after Russia and largest on the continent.
Its economic progress now is thanks to its information, instant communication, advances in technology, the increased globalization of markets and the emergence of liberal trading regimes are fundamentally changing the way Canadians conduct their business.
Technologically advanced and industrialized, Canada maintains a diversified economy that is heavily reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade particularly with the United States, with which Canada has had a long and complex relationship.
It is a bilingual and multicultural country, with both English and French as official languages at the federal level. Official Bilingualism in Canada is law, defined in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Official Languages Act, and Official Language Regulations; English and French have equal status in federal courts, Parliament, and in all federal institutions.
67.5% speak English only, 13.3% speak French only, and 17.7% speak both. Although 85% of French speaking Canadians live in Quebec, Ontario has the largest French-speaking population outside Quebec. Other provinces have no official languages as such, but French is used as a language of instruction, in courts, and for other government services in addition to English.
The most densely populated country is Quebec City-Windsor along the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence River in the southeast. The Saint Lawrence River is the largest in the world before flowing into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence; it has its origins from southwest to northeast in the middle latitudes of North America and connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean.
The northern Canadian mainland is ringed with a vast archipelago containing some of the world’s largest islands, which dates from the last ice age and rich in minerals. The gulf is bounded by Newfoundland to the north and the Maritime Provinces to the south.
Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada vary depending on the location. Winters can be harsh in many regions of the country, particularly in the interior and Prairie Provinces, where daily average temperatures are near 15 °C but can drop below −40 °C with severe wind chills.
On the east and west coast, average high temperatures are generally in the low 20s °C, while between the coasts the average summer high temperature ranges from 25 to 30 °C with occasional extreme heat in some interior locations exceeding 40 °C. In non coastal regions, snow can cover the ground almost six months of the year. Coastal British Columbia is an exception and enjoys a temperate climate with a mild and rainy winter.
Canada is made for exploring; it is a big country, with a lot of places to experience. Rugged mountain peaks and soft sandy beaches, cosmopolitan cities surrounded by quiet cosy villages, historic sites brimming with authentic traditions and stories, galleries with showcasing of modern works, innovative and endless attractions that make a delight to the imagination.