The state of New South Wales (whose abbreviation is NSW) is the oldest and most populous state of Australia. Its population is 6 889 100 inhabitants, most of them live in the city of Sydney (around 4.5 million inhabitants), one of the most important cities of Australia and the capital of New South Wales.
This state is located in southeastern Australia and has borders with South Australia at west, Queensland at north, Victoria at south and the Tasman Sea at east.
The most important cities of New South Wales are Sydney, Wollogong, Albury, Amidale, Tamworth, Coffs Harbour, Wagga Wagga and Newcastle.
The coastal zone has cool temperate areas in the south and tropical areas at north near the border with Queensland. Nevertheless, most part of NSW’s territory has a mild climate, which is free from extreme hot and cold, with temperatures that usually vary between 12ºC (54ºF) and 21ºC (70ºF) along the year, being 1138 mm (44 inches), the annual average rainfall rate.
The region of New South Wales has been inhabited by the Australian aborigines since 40000 years ago. One of the first Europeans that arrived to this region was the Captain James Cook, who traveled along the eastern coast of Australia in 1770. He named the coast of Australia New Wales; but, later this name became New South Wales in his journal.
The first British settlement was established in 1788 in the current Sydney, as a penal colony. However, the colony was developing rapidly, being Sydney, the center of this development.
The most important support of this development was the gold rush that surged in New South Wales in the XIX century that caused a great growth in the New South Wales population during this century. In the last decades of the XIX century, New South Wales and several other colonies of Australia became independent governments and New South Wales became a state in 1901.
During the first half of the XX century, because of the World Wars, began a period of political and class conflicts in New South Wales. Nevertheless, after the World War II, New South Wales experienced a great social and economical development, becoming in the economic and cultural center of the country.
The service industry of New South Wales is amongst the best in the world, being the most prominent sectors business and financial services; nevertheless, the sector of the information and communication technologies is also very developed in this Australian state. The production of minerals, the agriculture and manufacturing are also very important activities to the New South Wales economy.
One of the best examples of NSW’s industry is Port Kembla, a seaport, industrial complex in a suburb of Wollongong; this complex is home of the Australia’s tallest industrial chimney, which is 198 meters tall.
Besides, New South Wales has many tourist attractions such as the Opera of Sydney, the wonderful beaches of the coast or the national parks, marine parks and state conservation areas; amongst them the famous Mungo National Park. Another important landmark of New South Wales is the Mount Kosciusko, which is the highest mountain of Australia (2228 meters height).
These attractions are a great source of incomes to the state, since, the tourism industry in NSW produces around $23 billion per year. Thanks to these activities NWS has one of the highest Gross State Products per capita of the world, which is around $45584.
New South Wales is also the center of the culture in Australia. Most museums, concert halls, theatres, art galleries and other cultural centers are in this state, mainly in Sydney, whose Opera House is without doubt one of the most famous icons of the world culture of the XX century.
You can reach New South Wales by car from the rest of Australia and by air and sea from the entire world. Most visitors arrive to New South Wales using Sydney’s airport, which receives flights from all the world. There are several bus and train services that connect the main cities of the state with important Australian cities, such as Melbourne, Adelaide, Camberra, Brisbane, etc.
New South Wales is a territory blessed with a combination of history, natural beauty and urban glitz which makes it an area you definitely must visit.